(Weekly Organ of the Communist Party of India (Marxist)
April 28, 2013
Concrete Analysis of Concrete Conditions
is the Living Essence of Comrade P Sundarayya
P Sundarayya's contributions to India's freedom struggle, to
the founding and
building of the Communist Party and the revolutionary
movement in India and his
contributions in the process of the evolution of the
democratic, Indian republic are both numerous and
significant. Much of this is
recorded in history. It is impossible to deal with the
myriad contributions he
made for advancing the peoples' struggle for liberation in
first relates to his contribution to the national question
is in this context that Comrade Sundarayya's pamphlet, Vishalandhralo Prajarajyam (Peoples' Rule in
Unified Andhra), made
an epochal contribution in bringing onto the country's
agenda the question of
linguistic states. Carrying forward the Marxist
understanding of language being
one, not the only one, of the important components that
nationality, PS and the Party characterised
agitation had its repercussions in other areas as well. The
movements for Aikya
Kerala and Samyuktha Maharashtra, were led, amongst
others, by Communist
leaders. It was these popular powerful peoples' movements
forced the Indian ruling classes to accept the linguistic
reorganisation of the
Indian states. The political map of modern
Such a political unity of different nationalities that constitute our country to flourish, according to PS' vision, needed the other crucial element, i.e., prajarajyam or peoples' rule. In its absence, it would be perfectly possible for conflicts and contradictions to emerge between the linguistic states and within. In the absence of prajarajyam, the Indian ruling classes seek to utilise such conflicts in order to deny the status of real autonomy to the states in their drive to have a centralised unitary State structure that will facilitate a more intensified class exploitation. Such conflicts between the states and within the states, like the case of backward regions like Telangana, Vidharbha etc, will also be utilised by the ruling classes to keep the unity of the people divided and disrupt the strength of the unity of the working people against their class rule. In other words, the ruling classes always use such conflicts and contradictions to consolidate their class rule, deny the people their basic democratic rights and the states, the required autonomy. It is this issue of centre-state relations which PS highlighted in the CPI(M)'s memorandum to the National Integration Council in 1968.
PS as the general secretary initiated the amending of the
deleting the clause, “the right of all nationalities for
This was finally formalised at the 9th Party Congress in
is this unity of the working people, whose strength will
create the prajarajyam,
where such tendencies like
centralisation of power, deliberately keeping certain areas
states backward, exploiting the conflicts and
contradictions, which are
currently done by the ruling classes to consolidate their
rule, will cease. PS'
life and work will continue to be an inspiration to
establish such a prajarajyam
second issue, which is closely connected with achieving the
ideal of prajarajyam,
that PS contributed to the
nation's agenda was on the question of land. The glorious
struggle of which he was one of the undisputed pre-eminent
liberated more than 4000 villages for more than three years,
destroying the tyrannical feudal order of the Hyderabad
Nizam by distributing
land to the tiller brought onto the centre stage the issue
of the abolition of
militant land struggles were taking place in other parts of
the country like,
Punnapra Vayalar in Kerala, the Warli Adivasi revolt in
anti-betterment levy movement in Punjab, the Tebhaga
movement in Bengal, the
Surma valley struggles in
PS' contribution to the land question was not confined only to the abolition of the feudal landlordism. He also demonstrated during the years of prajarajyam in Telangana, that by giving land to the tiller, the productivity of both land and labour increased significantly. He thus demonstrated the economic benefits of land reforms and that it was not merely a humanitarian objective guided by the principles of egalitarianism, however laudable and necessary it is.
a digression, consider why the roots of democracy are
stronger today in
While we are proud that in the Left ruled states land reforms were implemented, we must realise that the land that has been distributed was that land that was earlier illegally held by the landlords above the ceiling limits. It is this land that was taken over under the land ceiling act and distributed to the landless. But the basic task of 'land to the tiller', still remains to be accomplished. PS' life and work must continue to be the inspiration to move forward for completing the democratic agrarian revolution.
Thirdly, PS' contribution on the question of social justice and struggles against social oppression were also profound. At a personal level, he demonstrated his commitment by dropping the caste affix of 'Reddy' from his name. This inspired many generations, including mine, to drop the caste identity in the name. Apart from treating the struggle against social oppression as an integral part of the struggle for prajarajyam, PS demonstrated in practice that the most effective way of achieving this is by establishing, to use his favourite phrase, 'unity of the toilers'. During the course of the Telangana struggle, it was this unity of the toilers that not only achieved its success and glory, but pushed to the background the issues of caste and social identities. In today's conditions we find a rising consciousness among the socially backward sections and dalits against the social oppression that continues to be mounted against them. This is a very positive feature. At the same time, we also note tendencies of attempts being made to confine this rising consciousness within the parameters of the concerned caste or a social identity. This tends to separate these sections from the general democratic movement. This also has the danger of pitting one socially oppressed group against the other. Hence these are negative trends that will only strengthen the ruling class efforts to consolidate their rule.
Learning from PS' life and work, we must strive to integrate these sections into the general democratic movement. This can happen only when the general democratic movement and the Party as a whole champions these issues of social oppression alongside those of economic exploitation. This is the only way to build the worker-peasant alliance, the axis of our revolution.
Finally, PS always used to keep reminding all of us that a correct political line is necessary but not the sufficient condition for advancing the revolutionary movement. Unless there is a strong organisation, even a correct political line would remain meaningless as the Party would not be able to take its understanding to the people. An organisation must ensure that the people by themselves start raising the same slogans that the Party gives for advancing the revolutionary movement. In order to achieve this, it is often necessary to study the concrete conditions. For instance, during the course of land struggles and from that experience, PS identified the potential contradiction between the rich peasantry and the agricultural labour, while the former would want to depress the wages, the later would struggle for an increase. Having both of them under the fold of the same organisation, will render the advance of that mass organisation ineffective. On the basis of such concrete analysis of concrete conditions, PS argued for and set up a separate agricultural workers' union from the Kisan sabha.
Likewise, he identified among the vast masses of Indian youth, there are the educated and a larger section of uneducated. While the educated have their students' organisation, there was none existing for the uneducated. He thus initiated the formation of the youth organisations. In this manner, he made concrete contributions to the organisation structures that became necessary to consolidate the unity of the toilers.
aspect of his contribution to the dialectical linkage
between the political
line and organisational practice was his emphasis in
studies to understand the continuing process of class
differentiation that was
taking place in society. Drawing from Lenin's inspiration,
who prior to the
success of Russian revolution undertook a concrete study of
of the peasantry in
This is particularly so in the period of neo-liberal economic reforms. Let me illustrate by an example. Some decades ago, say for instance an important role was played by the teachers' organisation and movement in developing the Party. Compared to the salaries they were drawing, say, three decades ago, these have multiplied manifold today. It is only natural that with such incomes, their interests in the Sensex and the illusions that neo-liberal reforms will make the Sensex go higher giving them greater returns are bound to increase. A class differentiation is taking place. I hasten to add there is nothing personal against the teachers! They play an important role in changed circumstances. Needless to add, the teachers today are facing new types of problems that affect their livelihoods and the struggles on these issues are rising. It is under such conditions that the concrete analysis of concrete conditions must be made to fine tune our immediate slogans and methods of agitation and protests.
late CPI general secretary Inderjit Gupta used to lament
that at one point of
time, if one boarded a train at
are other issues as well, like for instance, the growing
impact of social media
and social networking. We have seen how these had an impact
upon two entirely
different peoples' mobilisations at the
It is clear that from these four issues that I had chosen to dwell on, that PS' life and work were guided by what Lenin once said: “concrete analysis of concrete conditions, is the living essence of dialectics”. Today, on his birth centenary, as we pay homage to him, we must redouble our resolve to embrace this inviolable Leninist principle and contribute to advance the revolutionary struggle.
Red Salute Comrade P Sundarayya.